Goats are undemanding and the most favorable
Among domestic animals goats are undemanding and the most profitable for farms. From them get milk, meat, feathers, wool (Moguer), hides, manure. Goat milk exceeds cow on the content of fat, protein, calcium, vitamins, characterized by the small size fat globules, has high taste qualities and increased bactericidal action. Because of this it is recommended primarily for elderly people with diseases of the liver and gallbladder, as well as infants as a complementary food and replacement of breast milk.
Made from goat’s milk cheese, butter and other products. Meat goats the quality is not inferior to mutton. Of goat’s wool made shawls, scarves, hats, sweaters, wool – knitted clothes, carpets, blankets and other things. The skins of young goats at the autumn slaughtering suitable for the manufacture of sheepskin coats. Goat manure is the best fertilizer for gardens. It need 2-3 times less than a cow, on the same plot.
Goats of different productivity lines: 1 — milk; 2 — wool-dairy; 3 — wool (Angora)
For keeping goats don’t need large room. The plot size of 0.1 – 0.15 ha allows you to feed a goat with offspring. Goats can graze on a leash. They eat the kitchen waste and almost all types of roughage, including leaves and tree branches, waste gardening. In the direction of productivity breeds of dairy goats raspredelenia (zaanensky, Gorki, Mingrelian), feather (the don, Orenburg) and wool (Soviet wool, Angora). In Kharkov and other regions of Ukraine has long been bred dairy goats, which are mostly hybrids zaanensky breed. These goats are quite large, prolific and dairy. The live weight of females is 40-50 kg. Often they have two kids. Milk yield of goats is 300-500 kg per lactation, the duration of which is equal to 7 – 11 months.
Average fat content of goat’s milk – 4 – 5 %. The best milk goats in good conditions of feeding and care reach 1000 kg and more. These goats are adapted to local conditions. The suit is often white or gray. Most animals are horned, some have earrings.
Due to the increasing demand for knitted the garments have an interest in downy goats . Down as the best breed for local conditions we can recommend the don. It is most popular in Rostov, Voronezh, Volgograd, Voroshilovgrad and other areas. Fluff the fleece of these goats is 0.5 to 1.0 kg per head per year, and wool production of up to 1.5 kg and more. Monochromatic color of down – gray or white. Live weight of adult females is 40 to 45 kg goats 65 kg and more. Fertility – 170 kids per 100 females. By the autumn of kids reach the weight of 20 – 25 kg. These goats can also be milked, but yields are lower than in dairy breeds and is 200 – 250 kg.
When selecting high-yielding goats you need to consider his physique, shape of the udder, coat, health, age and origin.
A healthy goat has a cheerful, thin and tight skin, smooth shiny hair. Good physique characterize the broad and deep chest, straight back, long body with wide rear third, straight strong legs wide apart.
The goat has to come from highly productive parents. The high-milk goats udder is well developed, not otvechayuschie, or grushepodobnoe globular form, with wide-set slightly forward and to the side teats of medium size, without mastitis. Overgrown udder wool is not desirable. Udalosti determine directly during milking.
If the udder after milking does not decrease in volume and shrinks, goat maslomolochny.
Good down the goat should have a light suit and white feathers, a structurally stable spine, good coat, dense locking fleece. The age of goats is determined by the teeth-the incisors on the lower jaw. On the upper jaw incisors does not happen.
In young after year grows the first pair of permanent incisors (hooks). Two -two and a half years, there is a second pair of permanent incisors, three -third and four-year the milk incisors are replaced by permanent. They in this period have the form of wide spatulas. 5-6 years incisors noticeably erased, take the form of bits, between them there are gaps.
Seven years remain of hemp brown (milk incisors are always white). To eight years the incisors in goats usually fall out and discarded animals.